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This page demonstrates and discusses a putative identification feature for Pine Siskin (Carduelis pinus):

While examining photos of PISI and EUSI as I developed my green-morph PISI page, I noticed something that may have merit as a means of separating the two forms, when detail of the folded primary tips is available. Here is the green-morph PISI from Fort Worth:

- note the pattern of primary tips visible beyond the bunched secondaries: three tips are separated by two equidistant gaps, then the next "tip-gap" is slightly longer, followed by a very large tip-gap - the longest on the wing; the final tip-gap is again small - somewhat similar to those nearer the bunched secondaries.

Here are some EUSI images that I have copied from "Photographic Guide to the Birds of Britain and Europe" by Delin and Svensson; if any of the authors, publishers, or photographers want their photos removed, please email me.
1) by G.D. and Y.S. Dean:

- note that, starting at the secondaries, the tip-gaps get progressively larger, but are otherwise similar to PISI, however at the very tip, there are an extra couple of tips visible (compared to PISI), with very short tip-gaps. here's another photo of a male by Michael Leach:

- again note the progressively larger tip-gaps near the secondaries, and at least one extra tip (compared to PISI) with a short tip-gap. Finally, a third bird by Richard T. Mills:

- here there is at least one extra visible tip, compared to PISI.

Update; Jan 19, 20001: thanks to Bruce Mactavish, I can add a few images of EUSI from Bangor, Northern Ireland, courtesy of Anthony McGeehan:

- detail of the wing-tips are somewhat rectricted, but they fit the pattern described above for EUSI, which appears to be distinct from that of PISI.

I have checked about 8 photos of PISI, and the four birds currently coming to my feeders; all have a similar wing structure to the green-morph PISI above, except one bird at my feeder does show one extra primary tip just barely peaking out by a tiny fraction - nowhere near as obviously as on the above EUSIs.

My sample is very small (these are all the photos of EUSI that I could find showing the P-pattern), so I hope to get more data/feedback from others. As always, I would value informed comment on this page - please indicate whether your comments are to be considered private/anonymous - thank you.